PLENARY LECTURE Ⅰ
Chemical Biology of Nucleic Acids: DNA Origami and Artificial Genetic Switches
Prof. Hiroshi Sugiyama
Kyoto University, Japan
The DNA origami method developed for the preparation of fully addressable two-dimensional (2-D) structures has been utilized for the selective positioning of functional molecules and nanoparticles. We designed a DNA frame using the DNA origami method to investigate enzymatic action and DNA structural change. The substrate dsDNAs were incorporated into the cavity of the DNA frame to allow observation of the behaviors and/or reactions of transcription factors, DNA methyltransferase, DNA recombinase, CRISPR-Cas9, MOC1, and DNA repair enzymes. The proteins that bound to the target dsDNA in aqueous solution on a mica surface were visualized using a high-speed atomic force microscope (hs-AFM). We recently developed DNA nanocages using the DNA origami method and investigated the effect of confined space on the properties of G-quadruplex and i-motif, finding that the mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of the G-quadruplex inside the nanocage were significantly increased. We also developed a strategy for lipid bilayer-assisted self-assembly of various DNA origami tiles into 2-D lattices. Our results clearly demonstrated that the DNA origami method could provide a unique platform for the analysis of biomolecules at the single-molecule level.
Our group has also undertaken original research on the molecular recognition of DNA by antitumor antibiotics, and analyzed atom-specific chemical reactions on DNA. By integrating this information, we synthesized various functionalized sequence-specific DNA-binding pyrrole–imidazole polyamides (PIPs), which act as artificial genetic switches that can switch gene expression on and off on demand. We recently developed an alkylating PIP that could switch off the cancer-related KRAS gene and RUNX 1–3 regulatory genes.[8,9] To switch on gene expression we needed to consider epigenetic factors. We also developed a SAHA–PIP complex that comprised a sequence-specific PIP and HDAC-inhibiting SAHA. Evaluation of the effect of SAHA–PIPs on genome-wide gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts demonstrated that each SAHA–PIP could differentially activate therapeutically important genes. Conjugation of the DNA-binding domain "I" with HAT-activating CTB markedly activated the same cluster of genes as SAHA–PIP "I," substantiating the role of PIP in sequence-specific gene regulation. Recently we introduced a bromodomain inhibitor to PIP to activate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. To extend the recognition sequence, we introduced a host–guest system to facilitate cooperative binding to the target sequence. We can also control the forward/reverse orientation preference of PIP using a cyclic PIP with a chiral amino group.
In this talk, I will discuss recent progress in molecular analysis using the DNA origami method and regulation of gene expression using specifically designed PIPs.
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 Hirose, Y. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., in press.
DNA nanotechnology; DNA origami; hs-AFM; PIP; genetic switch; epigenetic
PLENARY LECTURE II
A Regulatory Science Approach to Assess the Safety of Medical Devices Incorporating Nanotechnology
Dr. Peter L. Goering
Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
Nanotechnology is significantly impacting the design, development, and manufacture of next-generation medical devices, contributing to advances in disease diagnosis and treatment. Materials engineered at the nanoscale offer size-attributable characteristics, such as large surface area, enhanced optical and electrical properties, anti-microbial activity, and enhanced tissue integration, making them attractive candidates for use in the medical device industry. Nanomaterials have been incorporated into a variety of medical devices, including implantable devices (e.g., orthopedic and dental implants, stents), skin-contacting devices (e.g., wound dressings), and in vitro diagnostic devices. In parallel with the remarkable advances in the use of nanomaterials in medicine, research programs in industry, government agencies, and universities around the world are evaluating the safety of nanomaterials. A robust regulatory science research program to develop the safety profiles of medical devices incorporating nanotechnology includes physical-chemical characterization, in vitro/in vivo models for biological evaluations, and risk assessment. The research goals are to develop and advance the methods, tools, and approaches that will improve safety evaluations of medical devices that incorporate nanotechnology. Projects include safety assessment of discrete nanoparticles and immobilized surface nanostructures used in medical devices with the aim to improve physical-chemical characterization, optimize biological test methods (e.g., genotoxicity), and develop toxicological risk assessment approaches for nanomaterials.
PLENARY LECTURE Ⅲ
Cancer immunotherapy & IL-7: the past, present & future
Prof. Young Chul Sung
Department of Life Science, POSTECH, Pohang, Korea
Genexine, Korea Bio-park, building B-410,
Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Cancer immunotherapy began with application of cytokines ( IFN-α & IL-2 ) for treating cancers by boosting host immune system nonspecifically in 1980s. followed by commercialization of mAbs in 1997 (Rituxan for follicular lymphoma).
It is recently highlighted by introduction of immune checkpoint (IC) inhibitors such as anti-PD1, anti-PDL1, and anti-CTLA4.
However to our disappointment, most lymphopenic cancer patients with cold tumors such as pancreatic & colorectal tumors do not have any response to anti-PD1 treatment.
Even in cancer patients with hot tumors, a portion of patients showed durable response to anti-PD1, ranging from 35 to 45%.
So, there is a growing consensus that there are large rooms for IC inhibitor treatments to be improved and the number of T cells in blood & tumor can be a biomarker for predicting the response to anti-PD1 drug.
Here, I will present Hyleukin-7, long-acting IL-7 as a potential lymphopenia drug, which appears to have a strong capability for increasing CD4 & CD8 T cells, but not Tregs, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, co-treatment of hyleukin-7 significantly enhanced anti-tumor effect of IC inhibitors, indicating a great synergy.
Immunotherapy, Hyleukin-7, Lymphopenia IC inhibitors, synergy
Cosmetic R&D case and future prospects with Biotechnology
LG Household & Health Care Institute of Technology, Seoul, Korea
Since the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA by J. Watson in 1953, biotechnology has been developed at a rapid pace, expanding beyond traditional medicine and food to a variety of fields including agriculture, electronics, the environment and chemistry. The cosmetics industry is also developing synergies with biotechnology, and has promoted the excellence of Korean cosmetics in the world under the name of "K-Beauty".
With the various brand portfolios such as the Royal palace premium cosmetics 'Whoo' which achieved annual sales of 2 trillion KRW for the first time in Korea, the natural fermentation cosmetics 'SU:M 37º' and the skin science cosmetics 'O HUI', LG Household & Health Care (LG H&H) has developed differentiated cosmetic technology based on the biotechnology and is leading K-Beauty as best cosmetic company in Korea since launching the Korea first skin care cosmetics, Lucky Cream (1947)1.
LG H&H is developing various differentiated cosmetic efficacy ingredients, include oriental medicine ingredients based on the systematic skin oriental medicine theory and the standardized oriental processing method, hypoallergenic fermentation ingredients, and bio-functional ingredients in relation to skin science theory. Furthermore LG H&H has presented new cosmetic technologies such as 'epidermal stem cell activation technology2', 'skin permeation activation technology3', and 'skin exfoliation activation technology4', to maximize efficacy based on biotechnology. Variety of products composed of unique efficacy ingredients and excellent technologies have given a real efficacy of sensory and satisfaction to domestic and overseas customers, resulting in 3 times sales and 4.6 times operating profit over the past decade.
LG H&H is leading the way in R&D as quickly recognizing 'Personalization', one of the future global consumption trends.5 Based on the latest biotechnology, genetic analysis technology, LG H&H is continuously strengthening abilities to analyze and comprehend individual genes/skin characteristics and correlations accurately. Utilizing the vast biological information collected, LG H&H is also trying hard to develop customized products with improved accuracy.
In this lecture, the achievements of LG H&H cosmetics R&D that have been developed with biotechnology are shared, and the current status of biotechnology research for the future cosmetic products is introduced.
References 1. History of Industrial Technology in Korea, Chapter4, 408 (2019)
2. Composition for improving skin (KR 10-1661288)
3. Skin Permeating peptide (KR-10-1329411)
4. S.-H. Lee, S.-H. Jun, K.Yeom, S.-G.Park, C.-K.Lee, N.-G.Kang, Optical clearing agent reduces scattering of light by the stratum corneum and modulates the physical properties of coenocytes via hydration(2018), Skin Research and Technology, 24(3), 371-378
5. Euromonitor, 20 most influential megatrends to shape the world by 2030(2017)
Biotechnology; Cosmetics; K-Beauty; LG H&H; Skin science; Personalization; Gene
Application of Bio Technology in Cosmetic Industry
Myeong Sam Park
COSMAX R&I Center, #902, Pangyo inno valley E, 255, Pangyo-ro, Bundang-gu,
Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
The Korea's cosmetic industry has grown rapidly since the 1990s and is currently leading the global cosmetic trends. Besides, it has created K-beauty trends since the 2010s. The characteristics of the Korean cosmetic industry are not only manufacturing but also cultural industry, which are new growth engines and future industries that can develop various industries connected together. The most dynamic and simultaneously new technologies are rapidly emerging in accordance with various technical and environmental regulations, the most noticeable of which is biotechnology. In the 2000s, as the technology including enzymes, microorganisms and bio-informatics has developed remarkably, the range of material selection applicable to cosmetic prescription has expanded dramatically. In addition, the development of dermatology has greatly contributed to raise the value of biomaterials and to the communication with customers. Based on these development, the biotechnology in the cosmetic industry has been able to derive the new functions that have not been achieved so far, and it is expected to lead cosmetic technology with mega trend for the time being. Global major cosmetic companies are integrating the genomic and medical technologies in detail as well as expanding the scope of cognitive and emotional area, which is a means to enhance the intrinsic value of cosmetics. Here, we focus on the technology trends and report the results of Cosmax's research for Fermentation, Human Skin Microbiome, Bio Factory and Bio Mimetic among various biotechnologies applied to the cosmetic industry.
1. Fermentation technology is gradually evolving into a customized fermentation technology that can modulate metabolites, and Solid State Fermentation is a useful technique for the production of microbial metabolites with skin physiological activity.
2. Human skin microbiome actively functions on the condition of skin moisturizing and aging.
3. In order to overcome the indiscriminate harvesting of natural resources, the mass production technology using microorganisms has been expanded recently.
Cosmetic biotechnology; Fermentation; Skin microbiome; Bio factory & mimetic
Hyun Ho Jung
CEO 초청 특별강연